For the operation of a contactless smart card (PICC) on a reader (PCD), a good antenna design is required. Such an antenna design is neither trivial nor "black magic", but simply requires a solid knowledge base in the field of electronics, knowledge of the basics of RFID antenna design and careful implementation of the design rules.
The lack of knowledge of the RFID antennas and sometimes the lack of measuring equipment from many scare to venture on such antenna design. In the book, the basic fundamentals are described that are needed.
We present a low-cost instrument for impedance measurement and adjustment of the antenna and used as an example (miniVNA, http://www.miniradiosolutions.com/).